1. Initialization

1.1 The Field's History
A common reaction to new technology is to focus on "concerns" of different kinds, which is how the ethics of AI and robotics are commonly discussed. Many of these worries prove to be rather quaint (trains are too fast for souls), some are predictably wrong when they claim that technology will fundamentally alter humans (telephones will destroy personal communication, writing will destroy memory, and video cassettes will make going out redundant), some are generally true but only marginally relevant (digital technology will destroy industries that produce photographic film, cassette tapes, or vinyl records), but some are legitimate. An article like this one's job is to examine the problems.

Some technologies, such as nuclear energy, automobiles, or plastics, have sparked ethical and political debate and considerable regulatory initiatives to regulate their trajectory, generally only after some harm has been done. Philosophy is particularly interested in how new technologies undermine established norms and conceptual frameworks, in addition to such "ethical concerns". Last but not least, after comprehending a technology in its context, we must design our society's reaction, including laws and regulations. All these characteristics—as well as the more basic worry that they would put an end to the age of human rule on Earth—appear in the case of modern AI and robotics technologies.

The ethics of AI and robots have received a lot of news attention lately, which promotes related research but may potentially lead to risk, security (Brundage et al. 2018, below, under Other Internet Resources [OIR]), and effect forecasting (e.g., on the labor market) being the main topics of press coverage. The end result is a discussion of primarily technical issues, with an emphasis on how to get a certain result. The current debates in politics and business are likewise driven by issues of public relations and image, and the term "ethical" is little more than the new "green," maybe used for "ethics washing." It would be necessary for us to not always be able to determine the morally correct course of action for an issue to qualify as an ethical AI dilemma. In this sense, losing a job, stealing, or using AI to commit murder are not morally problematic, but if these things

Another warning: Although there is a promising outline (European Group on Ethics in Science and New Technologies 2018), beginnings on societal impact (Floridi et al. 2018; Taddeo and Floridi 2018; S. Taylor et al. 2018; Walsh 2018; Bryson 2019; Gibert 2019; Whittlestone et al. 2019), and policy recommendations, the ethics of AI and robotics is still a very young field within applied ethics. Therefore, this page must offer an order where little order already exists rather than just reiterating what the community has already accomplished.

1.2 Robotics and AI

The term "artificial intelligence" (AI) is used to refer to any artificial computing system that demonstrates intelligent behavior, which is defined as sophisticated behavior that is helpful in achieving objectives. In particular, we do not want to limit "intelligence" to tasks that, if performed by humans, would demand intellect, as Minsky had proposed in 1985. This implies that we use a variety of machines, such as "technical AI" computers that have limited learning or reasoning capabilities but excel at automating certain activities, as well as "general AI" machines that try to build a generally intelligent agent.

The "philosophy of AI" field is based on the idea that AI somehow comes closer to our skin than previous technologies. Perhaps this is so because the goal of AI is to build computers that share a fundamental aspect of how we perceive ourselves as creatures capable of emotion, thinking, and intelligence. Sensing, modeling, planning, and action are likely the main functions of an artificially intelligent agent, but other current applications of AI include perception, text analysis, natural language processing (NLP), logical reasoning, game-playing, decision support systems, data analytics, predictive analytics, autonomous vehicles, and other types of robotics (P. Stone et al. 2016). To accomplish these goals, AI may use a variety of computing strategies, such as traditional symbol manipulation AI, inspired by natural cognition, or machine learning using neural networks.

What do you name a device that resembles a person and, in some circumstances, even acts like one? You are right if you guessed Robot. And the study of robotics focuses on the development and design of these mechanical people. Additionally, robotics nowadays is not just limited to the mechanical and electronic fields.

Computer science is now being used to make robots "smarter" and more effective. Artificial intelligence has significantly contributed to improving human comfort as well as industrial productivity, which encompasses both cost-effectiveness and high-quality output. This article provides a brief overview of the role that artificial intelligence plays in the subject of robotics.

How do artificial intelligence and robots interact?

There is an easy solution. Robots with artificial intelligence (AI) have computer vision that allows them to navigate, assess their environment, and decide how to react. Through the process of machine learning, which is also a component of computer programming and AI, robots learn from humans how to carry out their duties.


It is important to note that historically, the word "AI" was used as above between 1950 and 1975, fell out of favor during the "AI winter" from 1975 and 1995, and then narrowed. This led to fields like "machine learning," "natural language processing," and "data science" not always being referred to as "AI." Since about 2010, the term "AI" has been used more widely once again, and at times, high-tech and nearly all of computer science are grouped together. It is now a brand to be proud of, a flourishing sector with significant financial investment, and it is once again on the verge of frenzy. It could allow us to, as Erik Brynjolfsson pointed out,

Practically all people on earth would have access to greater education, we would greatly reduce sickness, and we would almost eradicate global poverty. (as cited in Robots are mechanical devices that move, whereas AI is sometimes purely software. Robots are physically impacted by their environment, generally through "sensors," and they exert physical force on it, usually by "actuators," such as a gripper or a rotating wheel. In light of this, self-driving automobiles and airplanes are robots, and only a very small percentage of robots are "humanoid" (human-shaped), like in the movies. AI is used by certain robots and not by others. Typical industrial robots often have no sensory input, no learning or thinking, and mindlessly execute predetermined scripts (IFR 2019 [OIR] estimates that about 500,000 new industrial robots of this type are installed annually). While robotics systems raise more worries in the public, it is definitely safe to claim that AI systems are more likely to have a bigger influence.

on people. Additionally, as opposed to systems that are more adaptable and autonomous, AI or robotics systems for a certain set of activities are less likely to introduce new problems.

Thus, it is possible to think of robotics and AI as two overlapping groups of systems: those that use only AI, those that use only robotics, and those that use both. Since we are interested in all three, this article's focus is on the union rather than the intersection of the two sets.

Since 1956, when John McCarthy first used the phrase "artificial intelligence," it has stirred up a lot of controversy. This is so that robots may be given life and given the ability to make their own judgments, thanks to AI. Different forms of AI are utilized depending on the purpose and the tasks that the robot must complete. These are what they are:

1. Artificial Intelligence That Is Poor

Artificial intelligence of this kind is used to simulate human cognition and behavior. The orders and replies for the robots are predetermined. The robots merely perform the task of locating the right answer when the proper instruction is provided; they are unable to interpret the orders. The best examples of this are Alexa and Siri. These gadgets' AI only completes duties that the owner requests of them.

2. Highly developed artificial intelligence

These autonomous robots employ this kind of artificial intelligence to do their duties. Once they have been trained to complete the work correctly, they do not require any sort of monitoring.


Self-driving cars and internet automobiles are two of the most intriguing instances of this form of AI in use today, since many processes are getting automated. Humanoid robots that can perceive their environment and interact with it well are also equipped with this kind of AI. As no human interaction is necessary, robotic surgery is also growing in popularity.

3. Sophisticated artificial intelligence

When a robot is required to carry out particular, specialized duties, this sort of AI is employed. It is only confined to a few jobs. This mostly consists of industrial robots that carry out predetermined and repetitive duties, such as painting, tightening, etc.